Between the Wars

Montagu-Chelmsford 1919

The Provincial councils are enlarged and given control over Indian education, agriculture, health, local self-government and public works.  This means that Indians dominated councils have control over these areas at local level.

Separate electorates are preserved.

More Indians are given the vote.

The viceroy retains control of military matters, foreign affairs, currency, communications and criminal law.  He can also enforce laws passed by the provincial council.

This system is called dyarchy

Rowlatt Acts

Amritsar Massacre

1931 – The Round Table Conference

 

The British and Indians from various groups are discussing the following proposal;

India would get dominion status – this means it runs its own domestic affairs but  Britain controls its foreign policy and has emergency powers.

India would be a Federal State.  The Provinces will run affairs such as local agriculture, education, local transport.  The Central government (which will be elected by Indians) will be in charge of such things as currency, infrastructure.

Separate electorates would not exist.

BUT

Minority groups want to retain their separate electorates. 

 

The Princely states fear the idea of a federal state and the idea of elections.

No agreement can be reached.

 Salt March

1935 Government of India Act

 

The idea of federal government had to abandoned

India was divided into eleven provinces.  The provinces would control everything except foreign affairs and defence.

Each province retained the governor, who had the power to act in an emergency.   The Viceroy also retained the power to act in an emergency

This is HOME RULE but there is no central government

Congress and the Muslim League object.  They want full independence

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