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Where next?

1965- 1968

Legal obstacles to Black Americans removed but other obstacles remained, in particular poverty, lack of opportunity and De Facto segregation.  King (and others) turned attention to problem of the ghetto. These problems would be more difficult to solve as they would demand GVMT intervention and economic redistribution.  This is very much against the American way.  Also, prejudice does not disappear overnight.

1966 – Chicago

Campaign to highlight problems in the ghetto.  Not unified and not successful.

Radicalisation of CORE and SNCC

Stokely Carmichael took over SNCC and Floyd McKissick took over CORE by 1966.  They were more militant than their predecessors, endorsed black power, rejected non-violence if members needed to protect themselves and wished to exclude whites from movement.

Influence of Malcolm X


Member of Nation of Islam.  Rejected accommodation and advanced Black separatism ‘by any means necessary’.  Advocated using force if necessary.

The Black Panthers

Huey Newton and Bobby Seale established Black Panther Party for self defense.  Had revolutionary views, were radical and militant – paramilitary organization. Set up projects in the ghettos. Were tagged by GVMT

1966 – The Meredith March

March organized in honour of James Meredith first black student at University of Mississipi.  Divisions between groups emerged over exclusion of white participants and use of force to defend marchers.  Ideal of Black Power emerged

1966 – The War in Vietnam

King and Malcolm X spoke out against it.  Johnson forced to curtail Great Society programme which would have invested money into impoverished areas.

1968 – Assassination of King

How much had been achieved by 1968?

What problems remained and why was it difficult to solve them?

What was the significance of key individuals?

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